Blind Robust 3D-Mesh Watermarking Based on Oblate Spheroidal Harmonics

J. M. Konstantinides
A. Mademlis
P. Daras
P. A. Mitkas
M. G. Strintzis
IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, Vol. 11, No. 1. pp. 23-38, Jan 2009.


In this paper, a novel transform-based, blind and robust 3D mesh watermarking scheme is presented. The 3D surface of the mesh is firstly divided into a number of discrete continuous regions, each of which is successively sampled and mapped onto oblate spheroids, using a novel surface parameterization scheme. The embedding is performed in the spheroidal harmonic coefficients of the spheroids, using a novel embedding scheme. Changes made to the transform domain are then reversed back to the spatial domain, thus forming the watermarked 3D mesh. The embedding scheme presented herein resembles, in principal, the ones using the multiplicative embedding rule (inherently providing high imperceptibility). The watermark detection is blind and by far more powerful than the various correlators typically incorporated by multiplicative schemes. Experimental results have shown that the proposed blind watermarking scheme is competitively robust against similarity transformations, connectivity attacks, mesh simplification and refinement, unbalanced re-sampling, smoothing and noise addition, even when juxtaposed to the informed ones. View